Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study. / Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 58, No. 6, 2008, p. 1000-1005.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Maibach, HI & Thyssen, JP 2008, 'Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study', Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1000-1005.

APA

Maibach, H. I., & Thyssen, J. P. (2008). Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 58(6), 1000-1005.

Vancouver

Maibach HI, Thyssen JP. Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2008;58(6):1000-1005.

Author

Maibach, H.I. ; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan. / Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study. In: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2008 ; Vol. 58, No. 6. pp. 1000-1005.

Bibtex

@article{393bbf908bfc11de8bc9000ea68e967b,
title = "Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study",
abstract = "Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: We sought to examine nickel release from inexpensive earrings and discuss possible methods of reducing nickel exposure among consumers. Methods: A total of 34 different stores and artists were visited. A total of 277 earrings were purchased and examined with the dimethylglyoxitne (DMG) test. Results: DMG-positive earrings were identified from local artists (69{\%}) and tourist stores (42.9{\%}) but also chain stores targeting young (24.1{\%}) and mature (1.7{\%}) women. No correlation between price and outcome of DMG testing was identified. Limitations. Our study does not reflect buying trends in the United States. Pretreatment of earrings with artificial sweat was not performed and the DMG may lead to both false-positive and false-negative results. Conclusions: Nickel exposure from inexpensive earrings is frequent in the United States. A regulatory governmental intervention may be warranted Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6",
author = "H.I. Maibach and Thyssen, {Jacob Pontoppidan}",
note = "Times Cited: 0ArticleEnglishThyssen, J. PGentofte Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Natl Allergy Res Ctr, Ledreborg Alle 40, DK-2820 Gentofte, DenmarkCited References Count: 38303QOMOSBY-ELSEVIER360 PARK AVENUE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USANEW YORK",
year = "2008",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "1000--1005",
journal = "American Academy of Dermatology. Journal",
issn = "0190-9622",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "6",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study

AU - Maibach, H.I.

AU - Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

N1 - Times Cited: 0ArticleEnglishThyssen, J. PGentofte Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Natl Allergy Res Ctr, Ledreborg Alle 40, DK-2820 Gentofte, DenmarkCited References Count: 38303QOMOSBY-ELSEVIER360 PARK AVENUE SOUTH, NEW YORK, NY 10010-1710 USANEW YORK

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: We sought to examine nickel release from inexpensive earrings and discuss possible methods of reducing nickel exposure among consumers. Methods: A total of 34 different stores and artists were visited. A total of 277 earrings were purchased and examined with the dimethylglyoxitne (DMG) test. Results: DMG-positive earrings were identified from local artists (69%) and tourist stores (42.9%) but also chain stores targeting young (24.1%) and mature (1.7%) women. No correlation between price and outcome of DMG testing was identified. Limitations. Our study does not reflect buying trends in the United States. Pretreatment of earrings with artificial sweat was not performed and the DMG may lead to both false-positive and false-negative results. Conclusions: Nickel exposure from inexpensive earrings is frequent in the United States. A regulatory governmental intervention may be warranted Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6

AB - Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: We sought to examine nickel release from inexpensive earrings and discuss possible methods of reducing nickel exposure among consumers. Methods: A total of 34 different stores and artists were visited. A total of 277 earrings were purchased and examined with the dimethylglyoxitne (DMG) test. Results: DMG-positive earrings were identified from local artists (69%) and tourist stores (42.9%) but also chain stores targeting young (24.1%) and mature (1.7%) women. No correlation between price and outcome of DMG testing was identified. Limitations. Our study does not reflect buying trends in the United States. Pretreatment of earrings with artificial sweat was not performed and the DMG may lead to both false-positive and false-negative results. Conclusions: Nickel exposure from inexpensive earrings is frequent in the United States. A regulatory governmental intervention may be warranted Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6

M3 - Journal article

VL - 58

SP - 1000

EP - 1005

JO - American Academy of Dermatology. Journal

JF - American Academy of Dermatology. Journal

SN - 0190-9622

IS - 6

ER -

ID: 13860970