Design and methodology of the PRIMETIME 1 cohort study: PRecIsion MEdicine based on kidney TIssue Molecular interrogation in diabetic nEphropathy

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BACKGROUND: Clinical features of diabetic kidney disease alone cannot differentiate between the histopathology that defines diabetic nephropathy (DN) and non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN). A kidney biopsy is necessary to make the definitive diagnosis of DN. However, there is no consensus on when to perform a kidney biopsy in individuals with diabetes and kidney disease. Furthermore, the implications of NDN versus DN for management, morbidity and kidney prognosis are unclear. To address the gap in knowledge, we aimed to create a national retrospective cohort of people with diabetes and a performed kidney biopsy.

METHODS: Adults diagnosed with diabetes in Denmark between 1996 and 2020 who had a kidney biopsy performed were included. The cohort was established by linking a nationwide diabetes registry with the Danish Pathology Registry. Data from 11 national registries and databases were compiled. The type of kidney disease was classified using a three-step analysis of Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes reported in relation to the histopathological examinations of kidney tissue. The final cohort and classification of kidney disease was as follows: out of 485 989 individuals with diabetes 2586 were included, 2259 of whom had type 2 diabetes. We were able to classify 599 (26.5%) with DN, 703 (31.1%) with NDN and 165 (7.3%) with mixed disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, 132 (40.4%) had DN, 73 (22.3%) NDN and 39 (11.9%) mixed disease. The remaining could not be classified or had normal histology. The overall median (Q1-Q3) follow-up time was 3.8 (1.6-7.2) years.

CONCLUSIONS: This cohort is a novel platform based on high-quality registry data for important longitudinal studies of the impact of kidney disease diagnosis on prognosis. With regular updates of data from the Danish registries, the presented follow-up will increase over time and is only limited by emigration or death.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Kidney Journal
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)2482-2492
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the ERA.

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