Biomarkers and the post-thrombotic syndrome: A systematic review of biomarkers associated with the occurrence of the post-thrombotic syndrome after lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningfagfællebedømt

Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a frequent chronic complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Biomarkers are potentially valuable clinical tools for handling PTS. The purpose of this review was to examine which biomarkers are associated with the development of PTS in adults with lower extremity DVT.
We performed a systematic review of all English language prospective studies of biomarkers and PTS published in PubMed and EMBASE. Studies were included if diagnosing DVT by diagnostic imaging and assessing PTS by clinical scales, for example, the Villalta scale. Biomarkers of thrombophilia and pathological clot properties were not assessed. Data was reported qualitatively.
15 prospective studies were included. Studies varied widely in study design and methods of data analysis. Forty-six different biomarkers were examined, with seven being measured in two or more studies. The most frequently studied biomarkers were D-dimer, CRP, and IL-6. Associations between PTS and D-dimer were predominantly significant, while results on CRP and IL-6 were inconsistent. ICAM-1 was consistently associated with PTS in all studies and at all timepoints. IL-10 was significantly related to PTS development in the largest study and at all time points. Adiponectin, tPA, HRG and TAFI, MMP-1 and -8, and TIMP-1 and -2 were significantly associated with PTS in single studies.
(1) Further research on biomarkers and PTS is clearly warranted. (2) Significant differences in study designs made it difficult to draw reliable conclusions regarding individual biomarkers. We suggest the implementation of a standardized framework for the study of biomarkers and PTS, to make comparison of future studies more feasible. (3) D-dimer, ICAM-1, IL-10, MMP-1 and 8, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin are clinical biomarkers of particular interest to include in future studies of PTS. Large scale systemic quantitative proteomic analyses of DVT patients could help identify novel biomarkers of interest in PTS-patients.
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)577-598
Antal sider22
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023.

ID: 372816887