Risk of dementia among older patients with lymphoma: A Danish nationwide matched cohort study

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Treatment of lymphoma can be associated with cognitive challenges, and some patients may fear development of dementia as long-term complication. Studies report a lower risk of dementia after cancer. Some believe this difference to be a protective mechanism of cancer, others believe it to be driven by bias. The risk of developing dementia after lymphoma has not been investigated in a population-based setting. The aim of this study was to identify the risk of being diagnosed with dementia after lymphoma treatment.

Materials and Methods
This Danish nationwide matched cohort study included patients aged ≥65 years with a first-time diagnosis of a non-central nervous system lymphoma between 2005 and 2018 in complete remission after treatment with chemotherapy. Patients diagnosed with dementia or treated with dementia medication before lymphoma diagnosis were excluded. Each patient was matched 1:5 on sex, year of birth, and a modified Charlson comorbidity index. Patients and matched comparators were followed from the corresponding patient's date of complete remission. The risk of developing dementia was calculated using cause-specific hazard ratios (HR), and the cumulative risk was estimated by Aalen-Johansen with death as the competing risk.

A total of 3,244 patients and 16,220 matched comparators were included in the study. There was no difference in risk of all-cause dementia among patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators with cause-specific HR of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70;1.04). The risk of both Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia was equal among patients and comparators: HR 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66;1.21) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.63;1.07), respectively. Stratified by lymphoma subtype, age, or year of diagnosis, the risk of all-cause dementia remained equal among patients and matched comparators. The cumulative risk of all-cause dementia was significantly lower among patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators (Gray's test p < 0.001), probably reflecting higher mortality in patients with lymphoma.

The risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and non-Alzheimer's dementia was equal among older patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators. Our data suggests that risk of developing dementia is not changed after lymphoma treatment.
TidsskriftJournal of Geriatric Oncology
Udgave nummer1
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - 2024

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The study was supported by Dagmar Marshalls Foundation (E.F.M), Master Carpenter Jørgen Holm and wife Elisa born Hansen's memorial trust (E.F.M), the Danish Cancer Society (E.F.M), Office Manager Gerhard Brøndsted's Travelling Scholarship (E.F.M), A.P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation (E.F.M), and the Karen Elise Jensen Foundation (L.H.J).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

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