Remnant cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apoB absolute mass changes explain results of the PROMINENT trial

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Background and aims
The PROMINENT trial, a cardiovascular outcome trial of the triglyceride- and remnant cholesterol-lowering agent pemafibrate, has shown neutral results despite reduction in plasma triglycerides and remnant cholesterol. We tested the hypothesis that absolute mass changes in remnant cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B explain the results of the PROMINENT trial.

Among 108,431 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), those who met the key inclusion criteria of the PROMINENT trial were analyzed to mimic the trial design. Endpoint atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and coronary revascularization as defined in PROMINENT.

In the PROMINENT trial, treatment with pemafibrate resulted in -7 mg/dL (−0.18 mmol/L; -18 %) change in remnant cholesterol, +10 mg/dL (+0.26 mmol/L; +12 %) LDL cholesterol, and +5 mg/dL (+0.05 g/L; +5 %) apolipoprotein B. In the CGPS mimicking PROMINENT, the estimated hazard ratios for ASCVD were 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94–0.99) for a -7 mg/dL (−0.18 mmol/L) change in remnant cholesterol, 1.04 (1.01–1.07) for a +10 mg/dL (+0.26 mmol/L) change in LDL cholesterol, and 1.02 (1.01–1.03) for a +5 mg/dL (+0.05 g/L) change in apolipoprotein B. When combining absolute changes in remnant cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, the estimated hazard ratio for ASCVD was 1.05 (0.96–1.14) in the CGPS mimicking PROMINENT compared to 1.03 (0.91–1.15) in the PROMINENT trial.

Absolute mass changes in remnant cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B can explain results of the PROMINENT trial. The 3 mg/dL (0.08 mmol/L) higher total atherogenic cholesterol together with 5 mg/dL (0.05 g/L) higher apolipoprotein B seem to explain the trend toward more ASCVD in the pemafibrate arm.
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - 2024

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Capital Region of Denmark [research fund to TD (grant number A7165 and A7272)]; the Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark; and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [JSPS: Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad to TD (grant number 202360405)]. The funders had no direct role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Authors

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