SGLT2-inhibition increases total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and lowers triglycerides: Meta-analyses of 60 randomized trials, overall and by dose, ethnicity, and drug type

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Background and aims: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2)-inhibitors were developed as glucose-lowering drugs. Surprisingly, SGLT2-inhibitors also reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The impact of SGLT2-inhibitors on lipids and lipoproteins is unclear, but an effect might contribute to the observed lower cardiovascular risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine this, overall and by dose, ethnicity, and drug type. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials examining all available SGLT2-inhibitors. Studies with available lipid measurements were included. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using random and fixed effects models. Results: We identified 60 randomized trials, including 147,130 individuals. Overall, using random effects models, SGLT2-inhibitor treatment increased total cholesterol by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.13), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 0.08 mmol/L (0.05, 0.10), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (0.05, 0.07), while it reduced triglycerides by 0.10 mmol/L (0.06, 0.14). Fixed effects estimates were similar but with smaller effect sizes for HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. For higher SGLT2-inhibitor doses, there was a nominally higher non-significant effect on lipids and lipoproteins. In Asian compared to non-Asian populations, a slightly larger increase in HDL cholesterol and a decrease in triglycerides were observed, but with similar results for total and LDL cholesterol. Treatment effects on lipids and lipoproteins were generally robust across different SGLT2-inhibitor drugs. Conclusion: In meta-analyses, SGLT2-inhibition increased total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides. Effect sizes varied slightly by drug dose and ethnicity but were generally robust by drug type.

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StatusUdgivet - 2024

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